With the Position Paper “Zero Carbon Energy Sources for Shipping”, the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Strategy Group aims to communicate the need for zero carbon energy sources in shipping. To achieve the needed greenhouse gas emission reductions in line with the IMO GHG Strategy and the Paris Agreement, the deployment of (net) zero carbon fuels is necessary – besides other technical and operational efficiency measures. CIMAC regards these fuels as especially important for deep-sea shipping, while biofuels may contribute in particular for the transitional period, and electrification and hybridization presumably playing a bigger role in short-sea and inland shipping. In view of the long lead-time for the establishment of large-scale production facilities for the fuels and the renewable energy, near-term investments are imperative. IMO needs to consider appropriate measures in the development of its GHG Strategy to create an enabling policy environment as soon as possible. The Position Paper is based on two White Papers (below) which shall give a short and easy reading overview of production pathways for hydrogen with a zero carbon footprint and future fuel options from the perspective of the large engine industry.
White Paper 1 “Production Pathways for Hydrogen with a Zero Carbon Footprint” is an outline of how hydrogen can be produced with a zero carbon footprint. Hydrogen can be the starting product for synthetic liquid or gaseous fuels for shipping. While electrolysis is the ideal production pathway, an alternative for the transitional period can be a low-carbon or carbon-neutral production of hydrogen via steam methane reforming or pyrolysis with carbon capture and storage. There will be an increasing demand for renewable energy and hydrogen derivates in maritime and other sectors in the near future.
White Paper 2 “Zero and Net Zero Carbon Fuel Options” gives an overview of potential future fuel options for shipping. Besides sustainable biofuels, hydrogen-derived liquid or gaseous fuels with a zero carbon footprint could be used to reduce GHG emissions in the maritime sector. While being non-exhaustive, the white paper describes the different processes available and their technology readiness levels. Although there is uncertainty about the development of the options, prices and capacities, it is already clear that (net) zero carbon fuels will not only find application in the maritime sector but also in various other sectors.